A bronze coin from the time of Antigonus II Mattathias, the last of the Hasmonean kings, has been found during the sifting of dirt excavated from next to the Western Wall under the Robinson Arch. The excavation was conducted by the Antiquities Authority, under the direction of Eli Shukrun. To date, about 66 coins of this type have been found. Antigonus II Mattathias reigned from 40 to 37 BCE.

In 40 BCE, the Parthians succeeded in conquering the Land of Israel from the Romans. With the support and help of the Parthians, Mattathias conquered Jerusalem and was crowned king.

Herod was forced to flee Jerusalem; he arrived in Rome, and was crowned king by the Roman Senate in 40 BCE.

In the year 39 BCE, Herod returned to Israel and amassed a large army. With the help of the Romans. There was a long military struggle between Herod and Mattathias for control of Israel and Jerusalem. Eventually, with the help of the Roman army, Herod succeeded in conquering Jerusalem in 37 BCE. Mattathias was captured and executed. Mattathias’ death led to the House of the Hasmoneans giving way to the House of Herod, with the House of Hasmoneans losing their position as the head of the Jewish nation in Israel, and soon after, even that of service of the high priesthood.

All that survived of him was Hasmonean blood that flowed in the veins of some members of the Herodian dynasty, among them the kings Agrippa I and II, descendants of Herod and his wife Miriam, daughter of Hyrcanus II.